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Cyber-Physical Security

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are engineered systems that are built from, and depend upon, the seamless integration of computational algorithms and physical components. They provide functionality to infrastructure systems in aviation, automotive, rail, healthcare, telephony and network, utilities and electrical power generation and distribution. Most cyber-physical system components—particularly those of critical nature—are networked using wireless and wired communication networks, embedded processors, sensors and actuators. They interact with humans and the rest of the physical world, deliver critical real-time data, and support guaranteed performance. Cyber-physical systems can provide much richer functionality, efficiency, autonomy and reliability than manually controlled and loosely coupled systems. However, they also create inherent vulnerabilities related to privacy, security, robustness and reliability of the underlying components and as a whole system. Because CPS can be significantly faster than humans or they can control and coordinate large-scale systems (such as the electrical grid), security and reliability issues are critically important.

In the coming years, cryptography will become integral to every aspect of our daily lives; from the controller of a braking system, to server and client computers, to handheld, portable, and wireless devices, all interacting devices will have to be capable of encrypting or decrypting and signing or verifying messages.

In the coming years, cryptography will become integral to CPS; from the controller of a braking system, to server and client computers, to handheld, portable, and wireless devices, all interacting devices will have to be capable of encrypting and decrypting or signing and verifying messages. That is to say, without exception, all networked computers and devices must have cryptographic layers implemented, and must be able to access cryptographic functions in order to provide security features.

In this context, efficient (in terms of time, area, and power consumption) hardware structures will have to be designed, implemented, and deployed. Furthermore, general-purpose (platform-independent) as well as special-purpose software implementing cryptographic functions on embedded devices are needed. An additional challenge is that these implementations should be done in such a way to resist cryptanalytic attacks launched against them by adversaries having access to primary (communication) and secondary (timing, power, electromagnetic, acoustic) channels.

Our related workshops

CHES workshop: http://www.iacr.org/workshops/ches/
PROOFS workshop: http://www.proofs-workshop.org/
ACHS: http://achs.cs.ucsb.edu/

Our related commercial endeavors

The Claveo Project http://claveo.com

Our recent publications

Journal
Koç, Ç. Ed. Journal of Cryptographic Engineering. Springer US, since 2011. Print. http://www.springer.com/computer/security+and+cryptology/journal/13389

Books
F. Rodríguez-Henríquez, N. A. Saqib, A. D. Pérez, and Ç. K. Koç. Cryptographic Algorithms on Reconfigurable Hardware. Springer, 2007.   link

Ç. K. Koç, editor. Cryptographic Engineering. Springer, 2009.   link

Papers
S. Contini, Ç. K. Koç, and C. D. Walter. Modular arithmetic. Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security, 2nd Edition, H. C. A. van Tilborg and S. Jajodia, editors, Springer, September 2011.

Ç. K. Koç and C. D. Walter. Montgomery arithmetic. Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security, 2nd Edition, H. C. A. van Tilborg and S. Jajodia, editors, Springer, September 2011.

İ. San and N. At. Compact Keccak hardware architecture for data integrity and authentication on FPGAs. Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective, Vol. 21, No. 5, pages 231-242, 2012.   link

Ç. K. Koç. About open problems. Open Problems in Mathematics and Computational Science, Ç. K. Koç, editor, pages 1-4, Springer, December 2014.   pdf

İ. San and N. At. Improving the computational efficiency of modular operations for embedded systems. Journal of Systems Architecture, Vol. 60, issue.5, pages 440-451, May 2014.   link

N. At, J.-L. Beuchat, E. Okamoto, İ. San, and T. Yamazaki. Compact hardware implementations of ChaCha, BLAKE, Threefish, and Skein on FPGA. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, Vol. 61, No. 2, pages 485-498, Feb. 2014.   pdf

M. Stipčević and Ç. K. Koç. True random number generators. Open Problems in Mathematics and Computational Science, Ç. K. Koç, editor, pages 275-315, Springer, December 2014.   pdf

R. K. Kim, L. R. Petzold, and Ç. K. Koç. Bitsliced high-performance AES-ECB on GPUs. Kahn Festschrift, P. Ryan, D. Naccache, and J.-J. Quisquater, editors, to appear, Springer, LNCS Nr. 9100, 2016.   pdf